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Press Release: Strategy Meeting of the Least Developed Countries Group hosted in Addis Ababa

Addis Ababa – From 21-23 March, members of the Least Developed Countries (LDC) group met in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia to assess the status of the UN climate change negotiations following COP23 and devise a strategy to bring the priorities and interests of LDCs to centre-stage in 2018.

Mr. Gebru Jember Endalew, Chair of the LDC Group, said it had been a valuable meeting, with coordinators on key issues in the negotiations collaborating on how to ensure a holistic approach is taken to advance the positions of the LDC group on all fronts, particularly to develop and finalise the rules of the Paris Agreement by the end of 2018, as mandated. Priorities across all areas of the climate change negotiations were discussed, including, for example:

  • Continuing to push for enhanced global climate action and the provision of support;
  • Engaging in the Talanoa Dialogue to building momentum for greater mitigation ambition in NDCs to be communicated by 2020, in the context of putting the world on a 1.5°C pathway;
  • Maintaining focus on the global goal of limiting temperature increases to 1.5°C, noting that models and analysis must focus on achieving 1.5°C rather than 2°C to protect the lives and livelihoods of people in LDCs;
  • Advancing discussions on a new collective goal on climate finance to scale up existing support to meet actual needs in developing countries, and urgently agreeing a definition on what constitutes climate finance to address ongoing issues such as the double counting resources provided;
  • Ensuring an agenda item is devoted to the Paris Agreement’s article on loss and damage at the negotiations of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Paris Agreement, reflecting the urgent need for concrete action to address loss and damage; and
  • Advocating for the entry into force of the Doha Amendments of the Kyoto Protocol in 2018.
  • Incorporating the Gender Action Plan into all elements of the Paris ruleset.

The importance of enhancing cooperation with negotiating groups sharing common interests was also highlighted. Mr. Mohamed Nasr, Chair of the African Group, joined the meeting and both Chairs emphasised the value of collaboration between the two groups, noting 34 African countries are LDCs.

The LDC group will next convene in Bonn, Germany for preparatory meetings from 24-25 April 2018, to consolidate LDC positions and strategies ahead of the upcoming Bonn Climate Change Conference.


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Powering up the LDCs: meeting of the Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Initiative in Addis Ababa, August 2017

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ADDIS ABABA—From 21-23 August representatives from LDC countries, along with partners and experts met to further develop the LDC Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Initiative (REEEI), launched in Marrakech at COP22.

Over 1 billion people worldwide lack access to electricity and half of these live in LDCs. However, LDCs often fall through the gaps in accessing funding and support from existing initiatives, and only a fraction of finance allocated to decentralised energy access finds its way to LDCs.

The LDC initiative aims to equip LDCs with the capacity and support needed to work towards universal access to electricity, develop ambitious renewable energy plans and ensure efficient use of energy through energy efficiency measures. With adequate support LDCs can leapfrog directly to clean, modern energy access, paving the way to sustainable development and demonstrating LDC leadership in pursuing renewable energy solutions.

The Addis Ababa meeting was an opportunity to further solidify the initiative by building on existing experiences and expertise, recognising the particular challenges faced by LDCs, identifying different actions suitable to the needs and characteristics of different LDCs and setting out a concrete path with a timeline of key steps to move the Initiative forward.

LDC REEEI would like to thank HIVOS and GGGI for their kind support in making this meeting possible, participants who sponsored their own attendance and the Government of Ethiopia for kindly hosting the meeting.



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COP22 Launches Major Global Partnership on Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency

MARRAKECH–Last night representatives of dozens of developing countries, including Africa, small island states, least developed countries and Central American countries joined COP President Morocco in launching the Marrakech Global Partnership on Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency.  The Global Partnership is a major outcome on clean energy from a conference aiming to deliver concrete action and implementation, after a year of high momentum following the adoption of the Paris Agreement.

The launch of the Global Partnership is the culmination of a year of collaboration among emerging renewable energy and energy efficiency initiatives worldwide. In May of this year at climate negotiations in Bonn, Germany, leaders of key negotiating blocs called for for a global partnership. There the Chairs of the Least Developed Countries (LDC) Group, African Group and Alliance of Small Island States (AOSIS)- representing over 90 countries – were joined by leaders from Morocco and Sweden, building off the inspiration of the Africa Renewable Energy Initiative (AREI), launched at COP 21 in Paris last year. The AREI, a program with pledges of USD 10 billion in financial support, aims to accelerate the harnessing of Africa’s huge renewable energy potential in an African-owned and African-led effort to mobilise 300 GW of renewable energy generation capacity in Africa by 2030.

Founders of the Global Partnership include five regional renewable energy and energy efficiency initiatives from Africa, small island states and least developed countries as well as collaboration with central American countries.

Mr. Tosi Mpanu-Mpanu, Chair of the LDCs, set out the Global Partnership’s vision at the launch, and said: “at this action and implementation COP, the Marrakech Global Partnership is a concrete outcome brightening the futures of the 1.3bn people who currently lack adequate access to energy. The Global Partnership forms a ‘roof’ supported by the sturdy pillars of regional initiatives, including the newly launched LDC Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Initiative (REEEI) for Sustainable Development. These pillars support a home that is more than the sum of its parts, catalysing transformative global action in the energy sector by growing capacity, sharing knowledge and building synergies.”

Mr. Amjad Abdulla, Chief Negotiator for AOSIS, said: “Island states are increasingly threatened by food insecurity, water shortages and devastating storms. We have recognised the urgency and decided to act now through our Initiative for Renewable Island Energy and the Global Partnership, demonstrating that countries most in need of access to clean energy and ambitious climate action are taking the lead in driving it.”

Ambassador Seyni Nafo, Chair of the African Group, said: “It is gratifying to see this African proposal for a Global Partnership take flight at a conference hosted by Africans on the African continent. Just as Africa is taking a lead through the Africa Renewable Energy Initiative, so must the rest of the world move towards low-to-zero carbon energy systems to keep warming below 1.5 degrees C.”

Mr. Ram Prasad Dhital, Executive Director, Alternative Energy Promotion Centre, Ministry of Population and Environment, Government of Nepal, said: “Only 5% of global energy finance flows into low income countries. The LDC Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Initiative is not trying to reinvent the wheel. Instead, it will fill the cracks LDCs currently fall through by facilitating access to finance flows and building capacity to establish the policies, regulations and project pipelines needed to get local projects off the ground.”

Minister Paul Oquist, of the Republic of Nicaragua, said: “I’ve often wondered why the most solar panels in the world are in the countries with the least sunshine. Many developing countries have enormous untapped renewable energy potential and the Global Partnership will enable communities to harness this. The link between electricity access and poverty is undeniable.Through the Global Partnership, Central American countries and other developing countries are on the path to low-carbon, sustainable development.”

Mr. Diego Pacheco, Head of the Bolivian Delegation at the UNFCCC, said: “The Plurinational State of Bolivia is pleased to associate with the Global Partnership. Policies and actions to facilitate renewable energy and energy efficiency in developing countries, are essential for moving towards sustainable development in harmony with Mother Earth.”

Mr. Saïd Mouline, Director of public/private partnership COP22, said: “The Global Partnership is a key outcome from COP22 and a shining light for South-South Cooperation. Developing countries are going above and beyond to take ambitious action in the energy sector and steer the world towards a safe and prosperous future for all. Morocco is proud to contribute a strong pillar to the Global Partnership with the International Energy Efficiency Initiative.”

Representatives of Sustainable Energy for All (SE4ALL), the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) also attended the event to welcome the new Partnership and expressed their support.  In addition, the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) which has been working in partnership with small island developing states to develop Initiative for Renewable Island Energy was also recognized as important.     

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LDC Pre-Marrakech ministerial meeting Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo, 28 September 2016


We, the ministers and the heads of delegation from the Least Developed Countries (LDC) to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, having met in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo for the Pre-Marrakech LDC ministerial meeting;

Reach, an understanding that a tremendous amount of work is ahead of Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change for the full implementation of the work programme mandated in Paris to prepare for the entry into force and operationalization of the Paris Agreement. This enormous work can only be achieved through mutual understanding and political will among Parties.

Appreciate countries that have already deposited their instruments of ratification of the Paris Agreement and those that have fulfilled or are well advanced in fulfilling their domestic processes with a view to ratifying in 2016.

Further appreciate the 13 LDCs that have ratified the Paris Agreement as of now and urge all LDCs to:

  • Complete their domestic processes required for ratification and to deposit their instruments of ratification as soon as possible;
  • Ratify the Doha Amendment to the Kyoto Protocol to support the multilateral process under its second commitment period; and
  • Engage actively in the development of rule-set of the Paris Agreement under the Ad Hoc Working Group on the Paris Agreement (APA) and UNFCCC Subsidiary Bodies.

Note the importance of ensuring the achievements of Paris Agreement and create peer pressure for other Parties to join, thereby ensuring that the Paris Agreement enters into force at the earliest possible date and providing the best chance of achieving the 1.5°C warming limit agreed in Paris.

Urge the operating entities of the Financial Mechanism serving the Paris Agreement to ensure country ownership, facilitate direct access and provide support while prioritizing the most vulnerable countries particularly LDCs to develop quality projects.

Underscore the importance of the key messages and thematic priorities of LDCs as contained in the annex to this communiqué.

Call upon LDC negotiators to continue to collaborate including with other groups of Parties and partners to ensure effective implementation of the Paris Agreement. This collaboration should safeguard and preserve the key interests of LDCs and all flexibilities provided to LDCs as well as special circumstances recognized in the Paris Agreement.

Urge all international partners, bilateral or multilateral, to provide full support to LDC countries, bearing in mind the objectives of the Istanbul Programme of Action (IPoA) for Least Developed Countries, to ensure all LDCs engage effectively in a pathway toward low emission and climate resilient development, that will protect the life of our population, economy and system.

Remain committed to continue to be fully engaged in the UNFCCC process to provide political orientation to our lead negotiators in Marrakech, in future conferences of Parties and to work towards an ambitious domestic climate agenda.

Welcome the LDC Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Initiative (REEEI) for Sustainable Development as presented by the Chair of the LDC Group, with a view to further discuss and launch this initiative at COP22 in Morocco (November 2016).

Thank the host country, Democratic Republic of Congo, for the great hospitality and facilitation of this important LDC pre- Marrakech ministerial meeting.

Issued this 28 September 2016 in Kinshasa, Democratic of Congo.



Annex: thematic priorities


  • Ensure that some of the key features spelled out in Article 4 of the Paris Agreement are considered while defining the mitigation section of NDC, including the link to the long-term temperature goal set out in Article 2; progression on successive NDCs; to be informed by the outcomes of the global stock take; support for developing countries; and flexibility for LDCs and SIDS,
  • Strong LDC participation is needed at the IPCC plenary meeting on 17-20 October that will decide on the scope of the Special Report on 1.5°C. LDCs should push for a decision on scope with adequate focus on 1.5oC, climate impacts and regional vulnerabilities, and that responds to the scientific assessments/benchmarks needed under Paris Agreement and CP.21 decisions.
  • Participate in the annual high-level events on pre-2020 action in conjunction with the COP to safeguard the interests of LDCs.
  • With respect to the 2018 Facilitative Dialogue, support the need to agree on a mandate in Marrakech that will allow work to commence on its scope, inputs and modalities, for decision at COP in 2017.


  • Help raise the profile of adaptation by insisting on recognition of adaptation efforts.
  • Seek mobilization of adequate and effective support for adaptation.
  • Formulate and implement NAPs as the vehicle for prioritizing and communicating adaptation needs, and initiate national systems for long-term planning and implementation.
  • Make use of the available $3 million per country under the Readiness and Preparatory Support Programme of the GCF for the formulation of NAPs.

Loss and damage

  • Call for or engage in efforts to strengthen financial support for loss and damage, through operating entities of the Financial Mechanism.
  • Strengthen the existing Warsaw International Mechanism on loss and damage (WIM) following its review in 2016 and through, among other things, the establishment of the clearing house for risk transfer and the task force for climate change displacement, as agreed in Paris.
  • Support technical level engagement and participation in meetings of the WIM.
  • Ensure that the theme related to the third function of the WIM as defined by decision 3/CP.18 “action and support” is covered under action areas for the 5-year rolling work programme of the WIM
  • Ensure that detailed term of reference is developed for the review of WIM and the review is done in a transparent and inclusive way.


  • Ensure substantial resources are provided through the funds established under the Convention and Kyoto Protocol to address needs and priorities for implementation (GCF, GEF, LDCF and AF).
  • Identify national capacity constraints and work towards building capacities to be able to develop project/programme funding proposals and access funding from available resources, particularly from the GCF.
  • Prioritize building capacity at the national level to develop projects that meet applicable criteria through use of “readiness programmes” and project preparation support.
  • Establish and strengthen national authorities to allow for direct access to funding for implementation, through satisfaction of necessary accreditation criteria.
  • Scale up target by 2025 for funds to be mobilized beyond existing floor of $100 billion per year, based on scale of implementation needs in connection with the 1.5oC temperature goal and adaptation needs in connection with projected impacts of climate change.

Capacity building and Technology Development and Transfer

  • Ensure that the terms of reference of the Paris Committee on Capacity Building are adopted; so that the committee starts its function to addresses the specific needs of LDCs and other developing countries.
  • Include capacity-building related activities in climate change related projects.
  • Secure financial support to deliver the long-term vision on technology development and transfer.

Transparency Framework

  • Engage actively in the elaboration of the transparency framework, cognizant of LDC capacity and other challenges, to ensure that the resulting rules reflect the discretion and flexibility provided to LDCs’ under the Paris Agreement and its adopting decision.
  • Engage in development of projects to strengthen domestic reporting capacities through the Capacity Building Initiative for Transparency (CBIT) operated by the Global Environment Facility (GEF).

Global Stocktake

  • Engage actively in the development of modalities for the Global Stocktake, and in the identification of inputs that will provide information needed for the Global Stocktake.
  • Ensure that the outputs of the global Stocktake include reports on collective progress achieved and the implications for updating and enhancing Parties’ actions and support.


  • Ensure that the compliance mechanism, in fulfilling its mandate to facilitate implementation and promote compliance, encompasses all obligations under the Paris Agreement.
  • Engage actively in the development of modalities and procedures for the compliance mechanism and its committee.

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Ministers from World’s Poorest Countries Call for New Initiative on Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency

On 28 September, Ministers and Heads of Delegation from the Least Developed Countries (LDC) Group welcomed a new initiative designed to scale up renewable energy and energy efficiency for the world’s poorest and least developed countries.

The new initiative, called the “LDC Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Initiative (REEEI) for Sustainable Development”, is to be launched at the next UN climate change conference to be held in Marrakech this November.

“This Initiative is a bold, collaborative effort by the LDCs to drive the global charge towards clean, renewable energy future. It will enable LDCs to leapfrog fossil fuel based energy by providing modern, clean, resilient energy systems that will generate prosperity and safeguard our futures,” said the Chair of the LDC Group, Tosi Mpanu-Mpanu.

Mr. Mpanu-Mpanu presented the Initiative to LDC Ministers and Heads of Delegation, which was met by broad support. “The adoption of the Paris Agreement and Sustainable Development Goals are propelling the world towards a phase of global action and implementation. The LDC REEEI is an important part of this process, providing concrete action to address climate change while empowering the world’s most vulnerable communities” said Mr. Mpanu-Mpanu.

“Most of the world’s 1.3bn energy-starved people live in LDCs. The LDC REEEI will ensure no LDC is left behind by strengthening the capacity of African LDCs to take advantage of the Africa Renewable Energy Initiative, while providing similar support structures for Asian and other LDCs.”

The Ministerial meeting was one of a number of discussions held during the gathering of LDC negotiators in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo, in preparation for COP22. The meeting provided an important opportunity for the LDCs to share knowledge and expertise and to further elaborate their common needs and interests in the lead up to the negotiations.

The endorsement of LDC Ministers and Heads of Delegation builds on international support for the Initiative during the May UNFCCC negotiations in Bonn, Germany, where leaders of key negotiating blocs called for global action on renewable energy and energy efficiency. Mr. Mpanu-Mpanu also presented the Initiative at a High-Level event at the UN Headquarters in New York City on 21 September.

“As we head towards COP22 in Marrakech, the LDC REEEI is an opportunity for our developed country partners to fulfil their support responsibilities under the Paris Agreement and is a key example of the actions that can and must be taken to achieve the important goals we all set in Paris.”

At the meeting, LDC Ministers also noted the tremendous amount of work to be done to agree upon a comprehensive rulebook for the implementation of the Paris Agreement in preparation for the entry into force and operationalization of the Agreement, and recognised the need to capitalize on mounting political will amongst all countries to take ambitious action on climate change.

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Meeting of LDC representatives held on the sidelines of NAP Expo 2014

On the sidelines of NAP Expo 2014 held in Bonn, Germany from 8 to 9 August 2014, Mr. Prakash Mathema, Chair of the LDC Group, convened a meeting of LDC representatives to discuss the upcoming UN Climate Summit (23 September 2014, New York) and how LDCs should proactively engage at the Summit. More than forty participants were in attendance.

During the opening session of the NAP Expo, Mr. Mathema also gave a keynote address on Evolution of Adaptation: Needs and Gaps for the LDCs. He spoke about the evolution of adaptation in the UN Climate Change regime and highlighted the needs and gaps from the perspective of the LDCs. Summarizing his presentation, he said that much had been done in the area of adaptation but more needs to be achieved in the days to come. Mr. Mathema also gave a special interview to Climate Action Network South Asia for their online news reporting.

Details on NAP Expo can be found at the following link:

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LDC Strategy Meeting held in conjunction with SBI/SBSTA 40 and ADP 2-5

LDC Group Chair Mr. Prakash Mathema (Nepal) convened a Strategy Meeting on 8 June 2014 (Bonn, Germany), to take stock of progress of ongoing discussions in the SBI/SBSTA-40 and ADP-2-5 and further develop LDC positions. In attendance were the Group’s Core Team members and other key negotiators.

Major points covered at the meeting included the scope and nature of the Intended Nationally Determined Contributions, and the overall 2015 Agreement including its legal nature. Participants spoke about the inclusion of adaptation in the Agreement as critical. Discussions equally touched upon the financial architecture of the future climate regime, and key issues for LDCs in this regard – including the question of the future of the Least Developed Countries Fund. The topics of technology development and transfer as well as capacity building also came under discussion. Finally, participants deliberated about how to further strengthen Group coordination in the various negotiation streams.

Overall, the feedback from the Strategy Meeting was positive.

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