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Least Developed Countries group calls for fair and ambitious action at COP22

From 7-18 November 2016, the United Nations climate change negotiations will convene in Marrakech, Morocco, for COP 22. The negotiations come after a year of growing international political momentum to address climate change, following the historic adoption of the Paris Agreement in December 2015. Chair of the Least Developed Countries (LDC) group, Tosi Mpanu-Mpanu, said “COP22 will be an action and implementation COP. As the world’s poorest countries, the LDC group calls for fair and ambitious action. We must build upon the foundations set in Paris to construct robust rules to support the Agreement’s implementation.”

Noting with concern that full implementation of current pledges by countries to cut greenhouse gas emissions puts the world on track for 3-3.5°C of warming above pre-industrial levels, Mr Mpanu-Mpanu said: “Science tells us that beyond temperature increases of 1.5°C the future of our planet stands on increasingly thin ice. It is imperative for communities across the world that countries take seriously their goal to pursue efforts to keep temperatures below 1.5°C. We cannot afford to treat this as an aspirational goal. An upwards spiralling of commitments to cut emissions that is both fair and proportionate to challenge rising before us is vital.”

LDCs plan to contribute to these global efforts through the LDC Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Initiative (REEEI) for Sustainable Development, among other ways. Mr Mpanu-Mpanu said: “the upcoming launch of the LDC REEEI in Marrakech demonstrates the continued commitment of the LDC group to real solutions that benefit real people on the ground. The Initiative will enable LDCs to leapfrog fossil fuel based energy and generate prosperity by bringing modern, clean, resilient energy systems to millions of energy-starved people.”

LDCs are particularly vulnerable to climate change, with hazards including rising sea levels, extreme weather events, increased drought and floods and the spread of tropical diseases threatening health and food security. “As LDCs, we lack the resources and capacity to adequately protect our communities from the devastating impacts of climate change. In Marrakech we seek greater commitment from developed countries to provide financial support, technology and capacity building to enable LDCs to respond to the climate crisis,” Mr Mpanu-Mpanu said.

The Marrakech meeting will see entry into force of the Paris Agreement on 4 November. Mr. Mpanu-Mpanu said: “the first meeting of the CMA is an important springboard for the implementation of the Paris Agreement. We celebrate newfound global unity to act on climate change. But given the moment of entry into force has arrived earlier than anticipated we must also ensure countries yet to deposit their instruments of ratification are not left behind on the launchpad. We look forward to an inclusive and transparent process in Marrakech that allows all countries to participate as we approach this next hurdle.”

Mr Mpanu-Mpanu also emphasised the necessity of pre-2020 action: “The impacts of climate change are already upon us. Pre-2020 action must be strengthened urgently to provide the thrust needed to propel our economies and policies towards effective, sustainable and ambitious actions.”

The LDC group has already convened in Marrakech for preparatory meetings from 1-2 November, to consolidate LDC positions and strategies ahead of the upcoming negotiations.

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LDC Pre-Marrakech ministerial meeting Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo, 28 September 2016


We, the ministers and the heads of delegation from the Least Developed Countries (LDC) to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, having met in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo for the Pre-Marrakech LDC ministerial meeting;

Reach, an understanding that a tremendous amount of work is ahead of Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change for the full implementation of the work programme mandated in Paris to prepare for the entry into force and operationalization of the Paris Agreement. This enormous work can only be achieved through mutual understanding and political will among Parties.

Appreciate countries that have already deposited their instruments of ratification of the Paris Agreement and those that have fulfilled or are well advanced in fulfilling their domestic processes with a view to ratifying in 2016.

Further appreciate the 13 LDCs that have ratified the Paris Agreement as of now and urge all LDCs to:

  • Complete their domestic processes required for ratification and to deposit their instruments of ratification as soon as possible;
  • Ratify the Doha Amendment to the Kyoto Protocol to support the multilateral process under its second commitment period; and
  • Engage actively in the development of rule-set of the Paris Agreement under the Ad Hoc Working Group on the Paris Agreement (APA) and UNFCCC Subsidiary Bodies.

Note the importance of ensuring the achievements of Paris Agreement and create peer pressure for other Parties to join, thereby ensuring that the Paris Agreement enters into force at the earliest possible date and providing the best chance of achieving the 1.5°C warming limit agreed in Paris.

Urge the operating entities of the Financial Mechanism serving the Paris Agreement to ensure country ownership, facilitate direct access and provide support while prioritizing the most vulnerable countries particularly LDCs to develop quality projects.

Underscore the importance of the key messages and thematic priorities of LDCs as contained in the annex to this communiqué.

Call upon LDC negotiators to continue to collaborate including with other groups of Parties and partners to ensure effective implementation of the Paris Agreement. This collaboration should safeguard and preserve the key interests of LDCs and all flexibilities provided to LDCs as well as special circumstances recognized in the Paris Agreement.

Urge all international partners, bilateral or multilateral, to provide full support to LDC countries, bearing in mind the objectives of the Istanbul Programme of Action (IPoA) for Least Developed Countries, to ensure all LDCs engage effectively in a pathway toward low emission and climate resilient development, that will protect the life of our population, economy and system.

Remain committed to continue to be fully engaged in the UNFCCC process to provide political orientation to our lead negotiators in Marrakech, in future conferences of Parties and to work towards an ambitious domestic climate agenda.

Welcome the LDC Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Initiative (REEEI) for Sustainable Development as presented by the Chair of the LDC Group, with a view to further discuss and launch this initiative at COP22 in Morocco (November 2016).

Thank the host country, Democratic Republic of Congo, for the great hospitality and facilitation of this important LDC pre- Marrakech ministerial meeting.

Issued this 28 September 2016 in Kinshasa, Democratic of Congo.



Annex: thematic priorities


  • Ensure that some of the key features spelled out in Article 4 of the Paris Agreement are considered while defining the mitigation section of NDC, including the link to the long-term temperature goal set out in Article 2; progression on successive NDCs; to be informed by the outcomes of the global stock take; support for developing countries; and flexibility for LDCs and SIDS,
  • Strong LDC participation is needed at the IPCC plenary meeting on 17-20 October that will decide on the scope of the Special Report on 1.5°C. LDCs should push for a decision on scope with adequate focus on 1.5oC, climate impacts and regional vulnerabilities, and that responds to the scientific assessments/benchmarks needed under Paris Agreement and CP.21 decisions.
  • Participate in the annual high-level events on pre-2020 action in conjunction with the COP to safeguard the interests of LDCs.
  • With respect to the 2018 Facilitative Dialogue, support the need to agree on a mandate in Marrakech that will allow work to commence on its scope, inputs and modalities, for decision at COP in 2017.


  • Help raise the profile of adaptation by insisting on recognition of adaptation efforts.
  • Seek mobilization of adequate and effective support for adaptation.
  • Formulate and implement NAPs as the vehicle for prioritizing and communicating adaptation needs, and initiate national systems for long-term planning and implementation.
  • Make use of the available $3 million per country under the Readiness and Preparatory Support Programme of the GCF for the formulation of NAPs.

Loss and damage

  • Call for or engage in efforts to strengthen financial support for loss and damage, through operating entities of the Financial Mechanism.
  • Strengthen the existing Warsaw International Mechanism on loss and damage (WIM) following its review in 2016 and through, among other things, the establishment of the clearing house for risk transfer and the task force for climate change displacement, as agreed in Paris.
  • Support technical level engagement and participation in meetings of the WIM.
  • Ensure that the theme related to the third function of the WIM as defined by decision 3/CP.18 “action and support” is covered under action areas for the 5-year rolling work programme of the WIM
  • Ensure that detailed term of reference is developed for the review of WIM and the review is done in a transparent and inclusive way.


  • Ensure substantial resources are provided through the funds established under the Convention and Kyoto Protocol to address needs and priorities for implementation (GCF, GEF, LDCF and AF).
  • Identify national capacity constraints and work towards building capacities to be able to develop project/programme funding proposals and access funding from available resources, particularly from the GCF.
  • Prioritize building capacity at the national level to develop projects that meet applicable criteria through use of “readiness programmes” and project preparation support.
  • Establish and strengthen national authorities to allow for direct access to funding for implementation, through satisfaction of necessary accreditation criteria.
  • Scale up target by 2025 for funds to be mobilized beyond existing floor of $100 billion per year, based on scale of implementation needs in connection with the 1.5oC temperature goal and adaptation needs in connection with projected impacts of climate change.

Capacity building and Technology Development and Transfer

  • Ensure that the terms of reference of the Paris Committee on Capacity Building are adopted; so that the committee starts its function to addresses the specific needs of LDCs and other developing countries.
  • Include capacity-building related activities in climate change related projects.
  • Secure financial support to deliver the long-term vision on technology development and transfer.

Transparency Framework

  • Engage actively in the elaboration of the transparency framework, cognizant of LDC capacity and other challenges, to ensure that the resulting rules reflect the discretion and flexibility provided to LDCs’ under the Paris Agreement and its adopting decision.
  • Engage in development of projects to strengthen domestic reporting capacities through the Capacity Building Initiative for Transparency (CBIT) operated by the Global Environment Facility (GEF).

Global Stocktake

  • Engage actively in the development of modalities for the Global Stocktake, and in the identification of inputs that will provide information needed for the Global Stocktake.
  • Ensure that the outputs of the global Stocktake include reports on collective progress achieved and the implications for updating and enhancing Parties’ actions and support.


  • Ensure that the compliance mechanism, in fulfilling its mandate to facilitate implementation and promote compliance, encompasses all obligations under the Paris Agreement.
  • Engage actively in the development of modalities and procedures for the compliance mechanism and its committee.

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Press Release: Strengthening Global Action on Renewable Energy at COP22

Press Conference 26 May1On the final day of the climate talks in Bonn Germany, leaders of key negotiating blocs joined in call for global action on renewable energy and energy efficiency at COP22 in Marrakech later this year.

The Chairs of these groups, representing over 90 countries highlighted the launch at COP 21 in Paris last year of the Africa Renewable Energy Initiative, a program with pledges of $10 billion in financial support, as a starting point for scaling up renewable energy worldwide

The leaders emphasized that COP22 in Marrakech offers an unprecedented opportunity to broaden this success to other developing countries, including small island, least developed, Asian and Latin American countries, as part of an enhanced global effort to support the uptake of renewable energy globally while strengthening energy efficiency.

Among the leaders calling for action were:

  • Tosi Mpanu Mpanu, Chair of the Least Developed Countries Group (LDCs, a group of 48 least developed countries);
  • E. Ambassador Mr. Hussein Alfa Nafo, Chair of the African Group of Climate Change Negotiators (AGN, a group of 54 African states);
  • Amjad Abdulla, Chief Negotiator for the Alliance of Small Island Developing States (AOSIS, a group of 44 small island developing states);
  • E. Ambassador Anna Lindstedt, Ambassador for Climate Change, Sweden;
  • Ayman Cherkaoui, representing H.E. Ambassador Aziz Mekouar, Government of the Kingdom of Morocco.

Mr. Mpanu-Mpanu, Chair of the LDCs, said that ‘The Marrakech COP will be an action and implementation COP. With the LDC renewable energy and energy efficiency initiative we are following up on Paris and beginning to deliver concrete solutions vital to addressing climate change.”

“The Least Developed Countries are committed to play our part in the global energy transformation, to provide clean and renewable energy, jobs and opportunities to vastly improve livelihoods for our people”, he said.

“COP22 provides an unprecedented opportunity to strengthen support on renewables to the LDCs, as part of a global programme of support. The energy of Paris must be channelled into real solutions to both climate change and development at COP22 in Marrakech”, said Mr. Mpanu Mpanu.

Ambassador Seyni Nafo, Chair of the African Group, said “Africa has taken a lead on renewable energy. With a mandate from 54 African Heads of State we have launched the Africa Renewable Energy Initiative, with the transformational goal of ensuring universal energy access to all Africans and adding double current electricity generation through renewables by 2030.”

“The AREI is a transformative, Africa-led and owned initiative strengthening sustainable development in Africa on a large scale, unlocking the continent’s huge potential to generate renewable energy and bringing electricity to hundreds of millions of people”, he said.

“I am pleased to see the African proposal for a global renewable energy partnership, which we launched in 2014, taking flight here in Bonn.  COP22 in Marrakech can deliver new voluntary cooperation that enables the UN process to accelerate action and deliver results for people, communities and productive sectors in our countries”, said Ambassador Nafo.

Mr. Amjad Abdulla, Chief Negotiator for AOSIS, said “AOSIS is proud to see that the UNFCCC process, including the talks on pre-2020 ambition that we have championed, yielding concrete results.  COP22 presents a substantial opportunity to launch practical, concrete solutions towards achieving the 1.5 degree C goal we need to keep all people, including the most vulnerable and our islands, safe.”

Anna Lindstedt, Climate Ambassador for Sweden, said ‘Sweden is proud to have supported the Africa Renewable Energy Initiative from the beginning and is very encouraged to see similar initiatives from other regions and groupings These ambitious renewable energy initiatives from developing countries show genuine leadership and is exactly what is needed to now shift the focus to implementation of the Agreement and spurring higher ambition of national contributions. COP22 in Marrakesh will be an important step for providing the tool countries need to move ahead.’

For further information:

Mr. Tosi Mpanu-Mpanu, Chair of the LDC group,, +4915171366079

 H.E. Ambassador Mr. Hussein Alfa Nafo, Chair of AGN,, +19177700596

 Mr. Amjad Abdulla, Chief Negotiator of AOSIS,, +9607775543

 H.E. Anna Lindstedt, Ambassador for Climate Change,, +46727153977


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Entrevista con La Información: Ayudar a los más vulnerables ante el cambio climático, tema candente en Bonn

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Entretien avec Le Parisien: “COP 21 : aider davantage les plus vulnérables à s’adapter, un sujet brûlant”

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LDC Chair tells RTCC: Lima climate talks “a matter of survival” for world’s poorest

LDC Group Chair Mr. Ram Prasad Lamsal is quoted in an RTCC article on how LDCs need the rich to make deeper emissions cuts for their survival.

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Entretien avec EurActiv: les pays les plus pauvres ont le plus à perdre en cas d’échec des négociations sur le climat

Prakash Mathema, président du groupe des pays les moins développés, en entretien avec EurActiv, estime que la conférence sur le climat de Paris ne sera couronnée de succès que si la vulnérabilité des pays les plus pauvres est prise en compte.

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