LDC Pre-Marrakech ministerial meeting Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo, 28 September 2016


We, the ministers and the heads of delegation from the Least Developed Countries (LDC) to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, having met in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo for the Pre-Marrakech LDC ministerial meeting;

Reach, an understanding that a tremendous amount of work is ahead of Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change for the full implementation of the work programme mandated in Paris to prepare for the entry into force and operationalization of the Paris Agreement. This enormous work can only be achieved through mutual understanding and political will among Parties.

Appreciate countries that have already deposited their instruments of ratification of the Paris Agreement and those that have fulfilled or are well advanced in fulfilling their domestic processes with a view to ratifying in 2016.

Further appreciate the 13 LDCs that have ratified the Paris Agreement as of now and urge all LDCs to:

  • Complete their domestic processes required for ratification and to deposit their instruments of ratification as soon as possible;
  • Ratify the Doha Amendment to the Kyoto Protocol to support the multilateral process under its second commitment period; and
  • Engage actively in the development of rule-set of the Paris Agreement under the Ad Hoc Working Group on the Paris Agreement (APA) and UNFCCC Subsidiary Bodies.

Note the importance of ensuring the achievements of Paris Agreement and create peer pressure for other Parties to join, thereby ensuring that the Paris Agreement enters into force at the earliest possible date and providing the best chance of achieving the 1.5°C warming limit agreed in Paris.

Urge the operating entities of the Financial Mechanism serving the Paris Agreement to ensure country ownership, facilitate direct access and provide support while prioritizing the most vulnerable countries particularly LDCs to develop quality projects.

Underscore the importance of the key messages and thematic priorities of LDCs as contained in the annex to this communiqué.

Call upon LDC negotiators to continue to collaborate including with other groups of Parties and partners to ensure effective implementation of the Paris Agreement. This collaboration should safeguard and preserve the key interests of LDCs and all flexibilities provided to LDCs as well as special circumstances recognized in the Paris Agreement.

Urge all international partners, bilateral or multilateral, to provide full support to LDC countries, bearing in mind the objectives of the Istanbul Programme of Action (IPoA) for Least Developed Countries, to ensure all LDCs engage effectively in a pathway toward low emission and climate resilient development, that will protect the life of our population, economy and system.

Remain committed to continue to be fully engaged in the UNFCCC process to provide political orientation to our lead negotiators in Marrakech, in future conferences of Parties and to work towards an ambitious domestic climate agenda.

Welcome the LDC Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Initiative (REEEI) for Sustainable Development as presented by the Chair of the LDC Group, with a view to further discuss and launch this initiative at COP22 in Morocco (November 2016).

Thank the host country, Democratic Republic of Congo, for the great hospitality and facilitation of this important LDC pre- Marrakech ministerial meeting.

Issued this 28 September 2016 in Kinshasa, Democratic of Congo.



Annex: thematic priorities


  • Ensure that some of the key features spelled out in Article 4 of the Paris Agreement are considered while defining the mitigation section of NDC, including the link to the long-term temperature goal set out in Article 2; progression on successive NDCs; to be informed by the outcomes of the global stock take; support for developing countries; and flexibility for LDCs and SIDS,
  • Strong LDC participation is needed at the IPCC plenary meeting on 17-20 October that will decide on the scope of the Special Report on 1.5°C. LDCs should push for a decision on scope with adequate focus on 1.5oC, climate impacts and regional vulnerabilities, and that responds to the scientific assessments/benchmarks needed under Paris Agreement and CP.21 decisions.
  • Participate in the annual high-level events on pre-2020 action in conjunction with the COP to safeguard the interests of LDCs.
  • With respect to the 2018 Facilitative Dialogue, support the need to agree on a mandate in Marrakech that will allow work to commence on its scope, inputs and modalities, for decision at COP in 2017.


  • Help raise the profile of adaptation by insisting on recognition of adaptation efforts.
  • Seek mobilization of adequate and effective support for adaptation.
  • Formulate and implement NAPs as the vehicle for prioritizing and communicating adaptation needs, and initiate national systems for long-term planning and implementation.
  • Make use of the available $3 million per country under the Readiness and Preparatory Support Programme of the GCF for the formulation of NAPs.

Loss and damage

  • Call for or engage in efforts to strengthen financial support for loss and damage, through operating entities of the Financial Mechanism.
  • Strengthen the existing Warsaw International Mechanism on loss and damage (WIM) following its review in 2016 and through, among other things, the establishment of the clearing house for risk transfer and the task force for climate change displacement, as agreed in Paris.
  • Support technical level engagement and participation in meetings of the WIM.
  • Ensure that the theme related to the third function of the WIM as defined by decision 3/CP.18 “action and support” is covered under action areas for the 5-year rolling work programme of the WIM
  • Ensure that detailed term of reference is developed for the review of WIM and the review is done in a transparent and inclusive way.


  • Ensure substantial resources are provided through the funds established under the Convention and Kyoto Protocol to address needs and priorities for implementation (GCF, GEF, LDCF and AF).
  • Identify national capacity constraints and work towards building capacities to be able to develop project/programme funding proposals and access funding from available resources, particularly from the GCF.
  • Prioritize building capacity at the national level to develop projects that meet applicable criteria through use of “readiness programmes” and project preparation support.
  • Establish and strengthen national authorities to allow for direct access to funding for implementation, through satisfaction of necessary accreditation criteria.
  • Scale up target by 2025 for funds to be mobilized beyond existing floor of $100 billion per year, based on scale of implementation needs in connection with the 1.5oC temperature goal and adaptation needs in connection with projected impacts of climate change.

Capacity building and Technology Development and Transfer

  • Ensure that the terms of reference of the Paris Committee on Capacity Building are adopted; so that the committee starts its function to addresses the specific needs of LDCs and other developing countries.
  • Include capacity-building related activities in climate change related projects.
  • Secure financial support to deliver the long-term vision on technology development and transfer.

Transparency Framework

  • Engage actively in the elaboration of the transparency framework, cognizant of LDC capacity and other challenges, to ensure that the resulting rules reflect the discretion and flexibility provided to LDCs’ under the Paris Agreement and its adopting decision.
  • Engage in development of projects to strengthen domestic reporting capacities through the Capacity Building Initiative for Transparency (CBIT) operated by the Global Environment Facility (GEF).

Global Stocktake

  • Engage actively in the development of modalities for the Global Stocktake, and in the identification of inputs that will provide information needed for the Global Stocktake.
  • Ensure that the outputs of the global Stocktake include reports on collective progress achieved and the implications for updating and enhancing Parties’ actions and support.


  • Ensure that the compliance mechanism, in fulfilling its mandate to facilitate implementation and promote compliance, encompasses all obligations under the Paris Agreement.
  • Engage actively in the development of modalities and procedures for the compliance mechanism and its committee.

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Ministers from World’s Poorest Countries Call for New Initiative on Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency

On 28 September, Ministers and Heads of Delegation from the Least Developed Countries (LDC) Group welcomed a new initiative designed to scale up renewable energy and energy efficiency for the world’s poorest and least developed countries.

The new initiative, called the “LDC Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Initiative (REEEI) for Sustainable Development”, is to be launched at the next UN climate change conference to be held in Marrakech this November.

“This Initiative is a bold, collaborative effort by the LDCs to drive the global charge towards clean, renewable energy future. It will enable LDCs to leapfrog fossil fuel based energy by providing modern, clean, resilient energy systems that will generate prosperity and safeguard our futures,” said the Chair of the LDC Group, Tosi Mpanu-Mpanu.

Mr. Mpanu-Mpanu presented the Initiative to LDC Ministers and Heads of Delegation, which was met by broad support. “The adoption of the Paris Agreement and Sustainable Development Goals are propelling the world towards a phase of global action and implementation. The LDC REEEI is an important part of this process, providing concrete action to address climate change while empowering the world’s most vulnerable communities” said Mr. Mpanu-Mpanu.

“Most of the world’s 1.3bn energy-starved people live in LDCs. The LDC REEEI will ensure no LDC is left behind by strengthening the capacity of African LDCs to take advantage of the Africa Renewable Energy Initiative, while providing similar support structures for Asian and other LDCs.”

The Ministerial meeting was one of a number of discussions held during the gathering of LDC negotiators in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo, in preparation for COP22. The meeting provided an important opportunity for the LDCs to share knowledge and expertise and to further elaborate their common needs and interests in the lead up to the negotiations.

The endorsement of LDC Ministers and Heads of Delegation builds on international support for the Initiative during the May UNFCCC negotiations in Bonn, Germany, where leaders of key negotiating blocs called for global action on renewable energy and energy efficiency. Mr. Mpanu-Mpanu also presented the Initiative at a High-Level event at the UN Headquarters in New York City on 21 September.

“As we head towards COP22 in Marrakech, the LDC REEEI is an opportunity for our developed country partners to fulfil their support responsibilities under the Paris Agreement and is a key example of the actions that can and must be taken to achieve the important goals we all set in Paris.”

At the meeting, LDC Ministers also noted the tremendous amount of work to be done to agree upon a comprehensive rulebook for the implementation of the Paris Agreement in preparation for the entry into force and operationalization of the Agreement, and recognised the need to capitalize on mounting political will amongst all countries to take ambitious action on climate change.

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Momentum for action under the Paris Agreement builds with Climate Change events in New York

21 September 2016

New York City is a hotbed of climate action this week, with the UN hosting events to enhance the implementation of the Paris Agreement. The eight annual Climate Week NYC is also being convened from 19-25 September, providing a collaborative space for climate events to support the Paris Agreement and UN Sustainable Development Goals.

On the 21st September, 31 countries deposited their instruments of ratification at the UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon’s special event to accelerate the entry into force of the historic Paris Agreement. 60 countries have now ratified the Agreement, which requires 55 countries representing 55% of greenhouse gas emissions to enter into force.

“With today’s 31 ratifications the Paris Agreement has surpassed the country barrier and is now on the the brink of early entry into force. This is a powerful political symbol that governments of the world recognise the need to take urgent action against climate change” said the Chair of the Least Developed Countries Group, Tosi Mpanu-Mpanu.

“The Paris Agreement is a dynamic and inclusive agreement which focusses on supporting the needs of the world’s poorest and most vulnerable countries. With entry into force imminent, it is vital that we build on this growing global unity and carry out our commitments agreed in Paris, to safeguard our planet for future generations. This requires developed countries to provide much needed support to developing countries, including the LDCs, to enable us to develop sustainably and adapt to the enormous challenges climate change presents to our communities,” said Mr. Mpanu-Mpanu.

On the afternoon of 21st September, Mr. Mpanu-Mpanu moderated an event at the UN Headquarters, in which the development of the new LDC Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Initiative was highlighted; a collaborative effort to align sustainable development and climate change goals by enabling universal access to clean, renewable energy in the world’s poorest nations. This initiative gained international support in Bonn in May this year and is to be launched at COP22 in Marrakech in November 2016, the next international climate conference.

Mr. Mpanu-Mpanu said “COP22 will be an action and implementation COP, providing the opportunity to begin implementation of the Paris Agreement through concrete action in the renewables sector. This is a chance for our developed country partners to fulfil their support responsibilities under the Paris Agreement, which should be a priority given their commitment to enhance the capacity and the ability of developing countries to take effective climate change action.”

“All LDCs face major challenges in scaling up renewable energy and ensuring energy access to our poorest communities. This initiative will ensure no LDC is left behind. With clean and renewable energy also comes jobs and opportunities to vastly improve the livelihoods of our people,” said Mr. Mpanu-Mpanu.

The LDC Initiative will develop under the umbrella of a Global Initiative on Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency, which will provide a space for developing synergies and sharing best practices amongst similar initiatives, including the African Renewable Energy Initiative and initiatives proposed by the Small Island Developing States.

“This Global Initiative exemplifies how the international climate process can generate new global partnerships, powering towards a more prosperous future for the world’s poor and amplifying the charge towards a clean energy economy.”

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Press Release: Strengthening Global Action on Renewable Energy at COP22

Press Conference 26 May1On the final day of the climate talks in Bonn Germany, leaders of key negotiating blocs joined in call for global action on renewable energy and energy efficiency at COP22 in Marrakech later this year.

The Chairs of these groups, representing over 90 countries highlighted the launch at COP 21 in Paris last year of the Africa Renewable Energy Initiative, a program with pledges of $10 billion in financial support, as a starting point for scaling up renewable energy worldwide

The leaders emphasized that COP22 in Marrakech offers an unprecedented opportunity to broaden this success to other developing countries, including small island, least developed, Asian and Latin American countries, as part of an enhanced global effort to support the uptake of renewable energy globally while strengthening energy efficiency.

Among the leaders calling for action were:

  • Tosi Mpanu Mpanu, Chair of the Least Developed Countries Group (LDCs, a group of 48 least developed countries);
  • E. Ambassador Mr. Hussein Alfa Nafo, Chair of the African Group of Climate Change Negotiators (AGN, a group of 54 African states);
  • Amjad Abdulla, Chief Negotiator for the Alliance of Small Island Developing States (AOSIS, a group of 44 small island developing states);
  • E. Ambassador Anna Lindstedt, Ambassador for Climate Change, Sweden;
  • Ayman Cherkaoui, representing H.E. Ambassador Aziz Mekouar, Government of the Kingdom of Morocco.

Mr. Mpanu-Mpanu, Chair of the LDCs, said that ‘The Marrakech COP will be an action and implementation COP. With the LDC renewable energy and energy efficiency initiative we are following up on Paris and beginning to deliver concrete solutions vital to addressing climate change.”

“The Least Developed Countries are committed to play our part in the global energy transformation, to provide clean and renewable energy, jobs and opportunities to vastly improve livelihoods for our people”, he said.

“COP22 provides an unprecedented opportunity to strengthen support on renewables to the LDCs, as part of a global programme of support. The energy of Paris must be channelled into real solutions to both climate change and development at COP22 in Marrakech”, said Mr. Mpanu Mpanu.

Ambassador Seyni Nafo, Chair of the African Group, said “Africa has taken a lead on renewable energy. With a mandate from 54 African Heads of State we have launched the Africa Renewable Energy Initiative, with the transformational goal of ensuring universal energy access to all Africans and adding double current electricity generation through renewables by 2030.”

“The AREI is a transformative, Africa-led and owned initiative strengthening sustainable development in Africa on a large scale, unlocking the continent’s huge potential to generate renewable energy and bringing electricity to hundreds of millions of people”, he said.

“I am pleased to see the African proposal for a global renewable energy partnership, which we launched in 2014, taking flight here in Bonn.  COP22 in Marrakech can deliver new voluntary cooperation that enables the UN process to accelerate action and deliver results for people, communities and productive sectors in our countries”, said Ambassador Nafo.

Mr. Amjad Abdulla, Chief Negotiator for AOSIS, said “AOSIS is proud to see that the UNFCCC process, including the talks on pre-2020 ambition that we have championed, yielding concrete results.  COP22 presents a substantial opportunity to launch practical, concrete solutions towards achieving the 1.5 degree C goal we need to keep all people, including the most vulnerable and our islands, safe.”

Anna Lindstedt, Climate Ambassador for Sweden, said ‘Sweden is proud to have supported the Africa Renewable Energy Initiative from the beginning and is very encouraged to see similar initiatives from other regions and groupings These ambitious renewable energy initiatives from developing countries show genuine leadership and is exactly what is needed to now shift the focus to implementation of the Agreement and spurring higher ambition of national contributions. COP22 in Marrakesh will be an important step for providing the tool countries need to move ahead.’

For further information:

Mr. Tosi Mpanu-Mpanu, Chair of the LDC group, ldc.chair.drc@gmail.com, +4915171366079

 H.E. Ambassador Mr. Hussein Alfa Nafo, Chair of AGN, agnchair2016@gmail.com, +19177700596

 Mr. Amjad Abdulla, Chief Negotiator of AOSIS, abdulla.amjad@gmail.com, +9607775543

 H.E. Anna Lindstedt, Ambassador for Climate Change,anna.lindstedt@gov.se, +46727153977


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LDC Press Release: Building on Political Momentum in Bonn


Bonn, 16 May 2016: On the 10th-11th May the Least Developed Countries met in Bonn to prepare for the upcoming climate negotiations beginning on 16th May. This preparatory meeting has been an important opportunity for all LDC negotiators to come together and further develop the collective goals of the LDCs in light of the Bonn negotiations, during which work will begin on developing the modalities, guidelines and procedures for implementation of the Paris Agreement.

Chair of the LDC group, Tosi Mpanu-Mpanu, said ‘despite bearing little historic responsibility for climate change, the LDCs have led by example, with unfaltering ambition and a continuing push for fair outcomes in the global community’s response to climate change. This ambition and collective spirit has been clearly displayed during our preparatory meetings and we are in a strong position to engage in the upcoming negotiations.’

The LDCs have contributed very little to causing climate change, yet are the most vulnerable to its damaging impacts. As the 48 poorest countries in the world, the LDCs also have the least capacity to adapt to climate change. As Mr Mpanu-Mpanu states, ‘the international climate regime is about more than just strategies and plans, it’s about people. We need to be able to give concrete effects to the Paris Agreement as soon as possible, and the round of Bonn is an opportunity to continue maintaining trust between us.’

The majority of LDCs have signed the Paris Agreement and many have begun the process of ratification of the Agreement, which Mr Mpanu-Mpanu states ‘is both a testament to the LDCs and an example of our readiness to work with the global community in combatting climate change.’

The LDC group continues to emphasise the importance of leadership by developed countries, and the facilitation of actions by all Parties to work towards achieving the historic goals adopted in Paris; ‘while the LDCs have the will to act, we lack the capacity and resources to do the heavy lifting required to address climate change’,  Mr Mpanu-Mpanu states. For the LDCs, taking much needed action on climate change relies on the securing of financial, technological and capacity-building support for on-the-ground action. This remains a key priority of LDC negotiators.

‘The LDC group looks forward to engaging in the negotiations in Bonn, and is encouraged by the record number of countries who united in New York to sign the Paris Agreement last month. This demonstrates that there is political momentum globally to set to work constructing the further arrangements for the Paris Agreement that will bring the next phase of the global climate regime to life.’

For further interviews or information on LDCs’ views on the final agreement please contact: LDC.CHAIR.DRC@gmail.com.

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LDC press release: unprecedented climate agreement is ‘best outcome for all’

Paris, 12 December: The Least Developed Countries (LDC) Group today welcome the news that all Parties in Paris at COP21 support the adoption of the new climate agreement.

Mr Giza Gaspar Martins, Chair of the Least Developed Countries Group said: “We are living in unprecedented times, which call for unprecedented measures. Nothing that has gone before compares to this historic, legally binding climate agreement. The COP Presidency and all Parties worked hard to deliver this accord which will move the world to a 1.5 degrees goal, while aiming to leave no-one behind. It is the best outcome we could have hoped for, not just for the Least Developed Countries, but for all citizens of the world.”


For further interviews or information on LDCs’ views on the final agreement please contact: ldcchairangola@gmail.com  Read the rest of this entry »

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LDC press release: Loss and damage, 1.5 goal will be in climate agreement

Paris, 12 December: The Least Developed Countries (LDC) Group feel optimistic about the content within the new draft text due at 11:30am CET on Saturday 12 December.

The LDCs have been negotiating in earnest alongside their ministers these last few days, often on three hours sleep or less, to try and keep the language dear to their nations within the text.

As the countries least able to adapt to climate change, and those who have least contributed to the problem, the LDCs’ key issues, which they feel confident will be balanced in the new text, include:

  • Inclusion of the below 1.5 goal, relative to pre-industrial levels, alongside a clear pathway of how countries will deliver against it
  • Ambitious commitments for communicating, maintaining and implementing mitigation targets, in five year cycles
  • Separate, overlapping five year cycles for reviewing the implementation of mitigation and finance commitments
  • Clear reference to ‘new and additional’ climate finance flows for mitigation and adaptation
  • Recognition of the special needs and specific situations of the LDCs
  • Establishment of a mechanism to address questions of implementation and promotion of compliance within the provisions of the agreement
  • The anchoring of a mechanism to avert, minimise and address loss and damage

On the viability of the below 1.5 degree goal, Mr Giza Gaspar Martins, Chair of the Least Developed Countries Group said: Read the rest of this entry »

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